regional anesthesia; It is a condition in which limited numbing is achieved by injecting an anesthetic agent around the nerves. There is loss of sensation in only one part of the body. The effect of regional anesthetic depends on the type of nerve to which the anesthetic agent is applied. Drugs applied to create a regional anesthetic effect are called local anesthetics. The regional anesthetic drug is given in such a way that it affects the nerves of the area to be operated.
Under spinal or limited numbing, the patient is awake and aware of the events around him. The patient hears and perceives what is spoken next to him. Nurses and surgeons should be sensitive about this issue.
Regional anesthesia forms
Regional anesthesia methods;
- topical anesthesia
- Local infiltration
- nerve block
- spinal anesthesia
- epidural anesthesia
Topical anesthesia is short-acting. These anesthetic agents (liquid, powder, cream, oil and gel type); By gargling, spraying, applying, dripping, it blocks the nerve endings in the mucosa and anesthetizes it.
Usage areas of topical anesthesia;
- In endoscopies
- Minor, nose, throat and mouth interventions
- It can be used in rectum and vagina examinations.
In case of accidental injection, respiratory failure, cardiac arrest and shock may occur.
Local infiltration anesthesia is performed by injecting the anesthetic substance under the skin into the operation area where the incision or surgical intervention will be made . The anesthetic drug shows its effect in the area where it is applied by blocking the peripheral nerves. Local infiltration is generally preferred for minor surgical interventions such as abscess opening.
When administering anesthetic drugs, care should be taken not to inject into the vein.
Cardiovascular collapse or convulsions may develop if the anesthetic is accidentally administered intravenously.
In this type of anesthesia, the conduction of the sensory nerves is interrupted by anesthetizing the nerve or nerve plexus.
With nerve block, a large area can be blocked with a small dose of medication. Care should be taken not to inject the anesthetic drug into the vein. Otherwise, serious systemic reactions may occur as in local infiltration block.
spinal anesthesia ; It is a form of anesthesia applied to the nerve block, which is obtained by the injection of a local anesthetic drug solution in the subarachnoid distance. In other words; Spinal anesthesia is the application of anesthesia in which pain, sensation and movement are eliminated in the lower part of the waist by administering a local anesthetic drug with a thin needle by passing through the surrounding membranes to the fluid in the spinal cord between the shoulders in the lumbar region. )
It is preferred in operations on the lower part of the body (lower extremity, lower abdominal interventions, cesarean section, etc.). After the surgical operation, the patient is laid flat on the bed and the head is slightly elevated. This is because the anesthetic may travel along the spinal cord, inhibiting (stopping) breathing. The nurse should follow the patient for possible complications. He should take his vital signs frequently.
Spinal anesthesia complications;
- Nausea and vomiting may occur.
- Low back pain may occur as a result of relaxation caused by puncture or block in the muscles.
- Headache may occur in the late period.